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2′-C-Methylcytidine is a nucleoside analog with antiviral properties. It has shown be a potent replication inhibitor, in vivo, towards multiple RNA viruses including hepatitus C virus (HCV). 2′-C-Methylcytidine has been shown inhibit viral RNA polymerase, disrupting replicon formation and preventing viral proliferation. While 2′-C-Methycytidine is a strong antiviral, it has exhibited low oral bioavailability.
MW: 257.24 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at -20°C.
PubChem Chemical ID: 500902
NOT FOR HUMAN USE!!
Formononetin is an isoflavonoid phytoestrogen that is used in microbiology and oncology research as a vasodilator, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. It has also been used as an anti-parasitic compound against Giardia lamblia trophozoites however, the mechanism of action is not well understood.
As an anti-viral, formononetin is used to suppress inflammation caused by neurotropic viruses. Studies on enterovirus 71 have shown formononetin to inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the prostaglandin synthesis pathway. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents prostaglandin E2 from stimulating viral replication through cAMP signaling in infected host cells.
Formononetin has also been used in vivo to induce large-arterial relaxation within rats by blocking calcium channels and activation of guanylate cyclase which stimulates protein kinase G and subsequently calcium reuptake. Both mechanisms of action remove calcium used for smooth muscle contraction within the rats but, opposite effects were observed in different species.
Formononetin has also been shown to inhibit nitric oxide generation in vitro on mouse macrophages. Nitric oxide is used by the immune system as a free radical and promotes vasodilation. Inhibition of free radicals also allow formononetin to act as an anti-cancer agent due to antioxidant effects of terminating free radicals. Radicalization of formononetin is stable due to resonance structures from carbon rings.
MW: 268.26 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at room temperature.
PubChem Chemical ID: 5280378
NOT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION!!
Germacrone is an essential oil extracted from Rhizoma curcuma and has been used as an anti-cancer and anti-viral agent. It has been shown to eliminate hepatic and breast cancer cell lines by inhibiting cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity. It has also been shown to upregulate apoptotic protein expression.
Inhibition of viral replication by germacrone occurs early in the virus cycle. When used against influenza, germacrone inhibited in vivo and in vitro viral replication by inhibiting viral RNA and protein synthesis. This prevents viral replication after splicing DNA by removing the needed materials for proliferation.
MW: 218.33 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at 4°C.
PubChem Chemical ID: 6436348
NOT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION!!
Ribavirin is broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside active against HIV, RSV, HCV, and adenovirus. It functions as a precursor to diphosphates and triphosphates, which inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Ribavirin is an inhibitor of purine biosynthesis. Additionally, a metabolite of ribavirin, ribavirin 5’-phosphate, is an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.
Formula: C 8H12N4O5
MW: 244.20 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store at 4°C.