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Cysteamine Hydrochloride or cysteamine is a mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride salt reductant that forms in mammals from pantetheine formation by degrading Coenzyme A. It has been used as a cystine depleting agent as well as a somatostatin inhibitor.
Cysteamine has been shown in vivo to remove accumulated cystine in lysosomes by forming disulfide bridges with cystine. The interaction between cysteamine and cystine forms cysteine and cysteine-cysteamine mixed disulfide which can freely exit lysosomes.
Cysteamine has also been shown to inhibit somatostatin however, the mechanism of action has not been elucidated. It is believed to either inhibit somatostatin precursor formation or by promoting somatostatin degradation.
Formula: C2H7NS ∙ HCl
MW: 113.61 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at 4°C.
PubChem CID: 9082
NOT FOR HUMAN USE
Dithioerythritol (DTE) is one of two Cleland’s Reagents (along with DTT). The two chemicals are epimers of each other, in which the hydroxyl groups of DTE are in the cis form as opposed to the trans form for DTT.
DTE is a strong reducing agent and is a component of buffers used in protocols for the isolation and purification of proteins.
DTE (Dithioerythritol), Cleland’s Reagent;
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
MW: 154.25 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at -20°C under inert gas. Protect from light.
Solutions should be prepared fresh, daily.
PubChem Chemical ID: 439352
Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the common name of the more popular of the two Cleland’s Reagents (the other being Dithioerythritol or DTE). DTT is a powerful reducing agent that forms a stable six-membered ring with an internal disulfide bond which is resistant to oxidation. DTT is often used for the following: reducing the disulfide bridge of the cross-linker N,N′-bis(acryloyl) cystamine to break apart the matrix of a polyacrylamide gel, the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins, the prevention of those bonds from forming between cysteine residues and lastly, DTT is often used to reduce thiolated DNA in order to minimize dimerization.
DTT is a nearly 7-fold stronger reduction agent than βME (β-mercaptoethanol) and has a less offensive odor and is less toxic.
DTT, DL-Dithiothreitol (Clelands Reagent),
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE
MW: 154.25 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at -20°C. Solutions should be prepared fresh, daily.
PubChem Chemical ID: 19001
As of January 2013, DTT was reclassified as a dangerous good by the US DOT. To enable us to avoid hazardous shipping fees, U.S. domestic ground shipments of DTT will be shipped as a limited quantity exception for the 25 g, 50 g, 100 g and 500 g pack sizes. In some instances GoldBio may ship 50 g as 2 x 25 g or 100 g as 4 x 25 g to qualify for a small quantity exception. As mentioned above, there are no hazardous fees for limited quantity of small quantity shipments.
During the summer, GoldBio may require shipment by Next Day Air. The 25 g, 50 g and 100 g DTT pack sizes shipped by air will ship as 25 g, 2 x 25 g or 4 x 25 g to enable the shipment to qualify for a small quantity exception and avoidance of hazardous fees. 500 g pack sizes will incur a hazardous fee of $40.00.
International shipments MUST be shipped by air (including Canada and Mexico). Shipments of 25 g, 50 g and 100 g will be shipped as multiples of 25 g units to qualify for the small quantity exception. 500 g pack sizes are a hazardous shipment and will incur a hazmat fee, which we estimate to be $65.
Glutathione, Oxidized (GSSG) is the oxidized version of the naturally occurring and very important detoxification agent glutathione (GSH). When used in vivo, GSSG will not remain oxidized, but rather be reduced back to GSH. A ratio of GSH to GSSG can be used to determine the level of oxidative stress that has occurred in cells. When a cell has higher levels of GSSG, then it can be implied that more oxidative stress has occurred within the cell.
HIGH PURITY GRADE
MW: 612.63 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store at 4°C.
PubChem Chemical ID: 65359
L-Glutathione is a co-substrate to glutathione transferase found in plants and animals and is involved in the elimination of free radicals resulting from both cellular respiratory and metabolic activities.
This antioxidant plays a role in reducing inflammatory stress in plasma and lymphocytes by directly reacting with reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also serves in amino acid transport and the maintenance of protein sulfhydryl reduction.
MW: 307.32 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store at 4°C. Protect from light.
Merck Index: 13, 4488
TCEP (Tris (2-Carboxyethyl) phosphine Hydrochloride) is an odorless reducing agent suitable for protein applications and in the preparation for electrophoresis. TCEP is water soluble, is stable in a variety of solutions and is particularly useful in the labeling of cysteine residues with maleimides, preventing the cysteines from forming disulfide bonds. As a reducing agent, TCEP has many other desirable features, including:
• TCEP-HCl is stable in air.
• TCEP-HCl is odorless so reactions can be carried out on the bench without the need for a fume hood.
• TCEP-HCl is efficient and can be used to reduce disulfide bonds at low concentrations.
• TCEP-HCl is selective for disulfides and does not react with other protein side chains.
• TCEP-HCl may be used as a substitute for DTT at a final concentration of 50mM.
Tris (2-Carboxyethyl) phosphine Hydrochloride
Molecular Biology Grade
Formula: C9H15O6P • HCl
MW: 286.65 g/mol
Storage/Handling: Store desiccated at -20°C.
PubChem Chemical ID: 2734570
- TCEP 50 g and 100 g ships as multiple 25 g units to qualify for a small quantity exception to hazardous
- Due to hazardous goods restrictions, this product cannot ship by ground shipping to Canada or Mexico.